Fruska gora is located between 45° 0’ and
45° 15’ of latitude, and 16° 37’ and 18° 01’ of longitude, in the
direction of parallel between rivers Danube and Sava. This mountain
chain is about 80 km long; the widest part of the chain has the width of
15 km. The highest pick of the mountain is Crveni cot (549 m), but the
chain looks massive because it surmounts ambient which is lowland.
The geological structure of Fruska Gora is,
compared to some other regions, relatively complex. The oldest segments
are serpentinites. According to some authors, they are products of
changed gabbro peridotites, the age of which is Paleozoic. Besides
serpentinites, there are other Paleozoic rocks such as philitites, mica.
chlorite, amphibolic and other shales.
The distribution direction of shales is,
generally, West - East, declining to the South.
On the surface, they appear in the central
parts of the mountain. On the north side. The main belt of the Paleozoic
products is mostly limited to the sediments of the upper Cretaceous. In
the westernmost part it is bordered by the Miocene sediments, and in the
south by the Quartar sediments. The contact of serpentinites with
Paleozoic shales are, as a rule, tectonic in character.
In the framework of the Mesozoic, there are
three rocks: of the Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous ages. The
Triassic age rocks had for a long time been classified as Paleozoic.
Only after fossil remains had been found, was their Triassic origin
confirmed. The oldest are conglomerates, and then follows a series of
purple and yellow sandstones, purple, gray and yellow clays and
clay-sandstones; limestones. According to some researchers, the so
called slate-phyllite series (mudstones, clay shales, slates,
slate-phyllites, quartz shales and partially metamorphic limestones)
also belong to the upper Triass.
In the Fruska Gora, lower, medium and upper
Pliocene are developed. In lithological terms, the lower Pliocene
sediments are represented by sands, sandy clays, less frequently by
grovels and lignite. The deeper facies are made of marls and marl clays.
A part of the flysch series is of the
Jurassic age. It has been confirmed by some recent research works,
although the well known scientist Koch thought that there were no
Jurassic sediments in the Fruska Gora and that lower Cretaceous
sediments were nonexistent.
In a thick series of upper Cretarrous
sediments there are:
basal conglomerates and large grain
brecca changing upward to small grain conglomerates and large grain
gray mudstones, sandstones and
reddish marl limestones, lime marls and
gray marl; reef-like firm sandy gray limestones: gray, brown and
black mica marls, clays and clayey, sandstones and arlcvrolites,
with a very rich fauna.
The Cretaceous sediments are clearly
stratified, except for brecca. The Cretaceous sediments have a broad
range. They have been discovered in the east and north-east part of the
Fruska Gora, in several smaller or larger profiles, in the terrains of
Strazilovo, Sremski Karlovci, Paragovo. In places, taking the form of
shoots, they appear in several locations eastward, all the way to the
The research in the tertiary sediments in
the Fruska Gora have shown that the previously separated "socanski"
layers of the Oligocene actually belong to the Miocene. Sediments of
this age have particularly been interesting in the study of the Vrdnik
coal basin, because the coal and the sediments surrounding it are of the
Miocene age. Lower, medium and upper Miocene are developed.
At the beginning of the Quartar
there were two large paleo-geographic units: land and water. The land
consisted of the mountain slopes and the water unit consisted of the
remains of the water basins that had existed earlier. In such
conditions, the Quartar sediments were deposited both on the land and in
appears in the form of a relatively thin cover. The highest elevations
on which it is found are about 400 m, and from there it covers the
surface part of the terrain all the way to the alluvial plains of the
Danube and Sava.
As a rule, loess can be found in saddle
areas between waterways flowing to the north or south, or builds
plateaus such as Miseluk, Rovine, Banstol, and many others. Loess
comprises several horizons, separated by fossil soils.
It has been generally accepted that loess
represents the products of eolian accumulation of fine dust and sand
brought by the winds during the cold and dry climate.
are found on the northern side of the mountain; they were created as a
product of the accumulation of the silt brought by the Danube. The most
extensively researched areas of the alluvion are in the sources of water
supply in Novi Sad (Adice, Ribarsko ostrvo, Ratno ostrvo,
Petrovaradinska ada, etc.). The bottom of the alluvion is mostly
composed of gravel and sand. The medium part consists mostly of sands,
with thin lens of dust sediments, rarely mud. The surface part mostly
consists of dusty sediments, smaller amounts of dust, sandy and muddy
are also elements of the composition. There are the following varieties:
trachites, latites, altered peridotites, volcanic tuffs,
dacio-andesites, melaphyres, diabases, gabbro. They appear in the form
of intrusive penetrations, veins, concordant penetrations, volcanic
outspills; they can be of Paleozoic, Triassic, Cretaceous and tertiary
Neotectonic activity of the region
In the neo-tectonic terms, the Fruska Gora
is a typical horst. Its shape and height have for the most part been
formed by a relative descent along the system of longitudinal E-W slits
and northward or southward slopes. This basic structural form became
separated in the younger tectonic stage, by lateral and diagonal slits,
into smaller blocks of different shapes and sizes.
The direction of the main rupture shapes is
W-E. Much shorter are the N-S slits, with occasional deviations towards
NNE-SSW direction. These are only several kilometers long slits.